Bolitho MD

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9834 Genesee Ave Ste 311 La Jolla San Diego, California
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17Aug, 2016

Changing the face of science

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Changing the face of science

Science continues to redefine itself in the area of facial rejuvenation. With an eye to the future, a recent article published in JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery has paved the way to new ideas and possibilities. And in the world of science, it’s all about new concepts.

While facial surgery such as facelifts, cosmetic injections, and even fat grafting have filled a vital niche for many patients opting for rejuvenation, researchers are testing to see if the human body can somehow perhaps be encouraged to stimulate facial tissue regrowth.

This area of science is called regenerative medicine.

In Vocativ, reporter Alexandra Ossola covers this recent article which was authored by Matthew Q. Miller, MD. Miller is a surgeon specializing in the head and neck regions from the University of Virginia Health System.

Ossola writes, “Though scientists’ interest in regenerative medicine has grown steadily since the early 2000s, interest in facial surgeries in particular isn’t reflected in the literature until 2010. Miller believes there are two reasons for this. Generally, facial surgeries have good outcomes—they heal quickly and have a low rate of infection, so there’s no need for dramatic improvement.”

Miller also shared that there is not “margin for error” in operative facial surgery.

“Even small imperfections can really stand out, as people’s eyes always focus on the faces of others in day-to-day interactions. Because of this, new techniques are a little slower to gain widespread acceptance among surgeons,” Miller said.

Also interviewed in the article was Richard D’ Amico who serves as the chair of the Regenerative Medicine Task Force which is a branch of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

D’Amico notes how hyaluronic acid fillers support facial structures. Fillers such as these are noted to add a more youthful appearance when volume or elasticity has dissipated due to age or premature aging. While injections of this type such as Juvederm offer a great outcome, the results are temporary lasting up to a couple of years.

While patient dependent, fat grafting is generally utilized during a facial surgery to add volume. Following liposuction of a small area such as the thighs, abdomen, or hips, the fat is then filtered via a centrifuge before the injections occur in the rejuvenation procedure

In the article, D’Amico described this process as labor intensive thus requiring it to be more expensive for the patient.

“If regenerative medicine works the way researchers think it could, patients could just get a quick injection, plus some localized anesthesia, to repair their facial tissues,” Miller writes. “And while it might not be able to repair tissues in a “Star Trek-like fashion” (that is, with a device that can heal wounds almost instantly), Miller and his co-authors write, these regenerative techniques could usher in a new age of plastic surgery for the face.”

The three levels scientists are currently focused on include the following:

  • Stem Cells
  • Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
  • Protein Matrix

While more research is underway and these above scientific avenues still require more answers, it’s interesting to know how science continues to play a role in facial rejuvenation in one form or another.

27Jul, 2016

The Anti-Aging Skin Defense

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The Anti-Aging Skin Defense

For those who want to defy premature skin aging, there is an arsenal of tools which can help make that possible. From those twenty-something years and beyond, there is a youthful pathway for every age group.

Regardless of how ever old one is, there is a tried and true daily routine which consists of sunscreen. Apply a broad spectrum sunscreen of SPF 35 or more every single day and reapply throughout the day if spending time outdoors. Don’t neglect the neck and décolletage area.

And yes, take part in this daily routine even on overcast days.

For those in their late twenties and early thirties, aside from the above solar protection, many are seeking the help of a registered aesthetic nurse who can assist premature skin-aging prevention. While this includes finding the right skin care line, these skilled skin care professionals are also delivering Botox to future areas which could be prone to wrinkles. This type of strategy helps from having these wrinkles develop.

For those in their late thirties to early forties, additional skin changes may occur such as the following:

  • Decrease in elasticity
  • Wrinkles and fine lines
  • Uneven skin tone
  • Age spots
  • Uneven skin texture

While every person is different regarding their skin care type, an aesthetic registered nurse can help remedy these challenges in a variety of ways. As Botox helps smooth out fine lines and wrinkles along the forehead and around the eyes to treat crow’s feet, fillers such as Juvederm can help plump and diminish those marionette lines around the mouth.

When one reaches their mid to late forties and early fifties, they may begin to notice that there is a loss of volume in the cheek area which occurs with the natural aging process. Voluma is an injectable which affords patients with a wonderful option in restoring this volume.

Some nurses will recommend delivering Voluma prior to the Juvederm. The reason behind this is on occasion the Voluma can help remedy or lessen marionette lines by adding more volume and lift to the medial facial region. Again, this is all patient dependent.

While cosmetic injections continue to serve as a great anti-aging defense, there are other treatments that do an extraordinary job such as the following:

  • Dermaplaning as a way to exfoliate and remove vellus facial hair.
  • Chemical peels as a way to diminish fine lines, age spots, and even out skin tone.
  • Micro-Needling as a way to promote collagen and more youthful looking skin.

As one reaches their late forties and early fifties, they may implement the procedures just mentioned as well as a cosmetic injection named Kybella to help submental challenges otherwise known as a “double chin.” Kybella may take two to four sessions to complete, but the treatment destroys fat cells on the underside of the chin.

It’s important to note that while these nonsurgical treatments help a number of individuals, some patients prefer to have plastic surgery procedures such as a neck lift, lower limited facelift, or eyelid surgery for their aesthetic goals.

Despite whatever rejuvenation road one is on, there are a multitude of options to achieve youthful results.

13Jul, 2016

Online Consultations Garner Attention

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Online Consultations Garner Attention

A new online cosmetic consultation portal helps individuals connect with multiple plastic surgeons.

Plastic surgery is an evolving field of medicine affording patients with refined techniques, superior technology, and strides in science at every turn. While patients are benefiting from these numerous changes, pathways in learning more about procedures and board certified plastic surgeons are progressing, too.

A variety of internet platforms such as patient review sites have helped numerous individuals. However, there is a new site named Zwivel that has emerged addressing the needs of potential patients living in a fast-paced world. Described as an online cosmetic consultation portal, individuals can connect with multiple plastic surgeons learning about the procedures they are interested in, recovery information, surgery prices, and more.

Janet Morrissey of the New York Times wrote a comprehensive piece on Zwivel. While plastic surgery entails even nonsurgical treatments such as cosmetic injections, it’s an industry that is indeed becoming part of the American culture. And it’s available to everyone. 

Many who have used Zwivel are calling it the pre-step to a plastic surgery consultation. It’s a complimentary site for potential patients which can mean a cost and time savings of booking multiple consultations with plastic surgeons in the early stages of their research.

Founded by Dr. Gary Breslow and Dr. Craig Abramowitz, Zwivel was created to help make the introductory process with plastic surgeons and prospective patients more effective.

“Just as Match.com allows strangers to scroll through and evaluate potential dates, Zwivel allows patients and doctors to size up each other and ask questions before committing to surgery,” Morrissey reports. “The site allows patients to check out doctors’ credentials, send photos or videos of themselves to preferred doctors, and get those doctors to answer questions about cosmetic procedures and prices, all free.”

With a Zwivel connection, the same questions can be sent to multiple doctors allowing a person to decide which doctor is a better match.

According to Zwivel, numbers have swelled since 2015. Last year, 800 doctors were signed up and that has skyrocketed to 1,400. Patient numbers have jumped from 6,100 to over 28,000.

When interviewing co-founder Dr. Breslow, he conveyed to the New York Times that roughly 36 percent of individuals who book a consultation actually move forward in scheduling the surgery. Dr. Breslow believed that this ratio was a direct link to people having incorrect or insufficient facts prior to their appointment. 

“Patients who are severely overweight sometimes think liposuction is the answer, and I tell them, ‘You don’t need liposuction; you need to lose weight,’” Dr. Breslow told the New York Times in his article. “Or a patient may want $20,000 worth of surgery and thinks the whole thing is going to cost $200.”

For some, Zwivel is creating a window of opportunity to transform connections between individuals and doctors into formal consultations. It also affords people with the opportunity to be reminded of realistic expectations and to help do away with any misconceptions.

While Morrissey pointed out that not everyone is still convinced that a virtual consultation is their current way of doing things, it’s available. And at the end of the day, having options and being mindful is always a great thing when plastic surgery is up for consideration. 

 

1Jun, 2016

Where Travelers Seek Plastic Surgery

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Where Travelers Seek Plastic Surgery

The news of people traveling to a destiny to receive cosmetic procedures is garnering more attention. While some people coin this as “medical tourism,” depending on the destination, it can very well be a rejuvenation vacation.

In a recent edition of Travelers Today, reporter Joseph Peter Capaque revealed the top destinations where people journey for cosmetic surgery.

These top countries include the following:

  • USA
  • Italy
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • South Korea

Before delving into the procedures patients seek in these countries, it is imperative to note that cosmetic procedures are medical procedures/surgeries so due diligence must be performed in locating the best board certified plastic surgeons for both safety and positive surgical outcome.

In the United States, patients are encouraged to seek doctors who are certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Plastic surgeons of this caliber are highly trained, skilled, and are considered masters in their field of surgery.

While a doctor may be “certified,” if one is seeking a plastic surgery procedure, they must be certain that a doctor’s board certification is in plastic surgery.  In addition to test taking, it can require several years to become board certified. But this distinction gives patients peace of mind.

Yes, this research may take a bit more time, but it is worth every moment spent by visiting sites such as the American Board of Plastic Surgery and American Society of Plastic Surgeons.  Another important item to research is whether or not the plastic surgeon has hospital privileges. And if so, determining how those hospitals are rated is of additional importance. A top-notch hospital is as equally vital as finding a masterful surgeon.

So if one is seeking surgery in the USA, it’s highly advisable to perform the above protocol. And if one decides to visit other countries for plastic surgery procedures, it is highly recommended that they take great care making sure the facilities and surgeons being considered are up to par.

According to Travelers Today, those who seek a rejuvenation vacation in the states generally have the following procedures:

In Italy, the treatments people seek are cosmetic injections such as Botox and fillers as well as liposuction. The procedure of liposuction is also popular in Brazil as well as breast augmentations. Adjacent to Brazil is Colombia where liposuction is also highly sought.

South Korea has become one of the fastest emerging countries for operative facial procedures. Capaque reported that in addition to rhinoplasty and double eyelid procedures being on the surgical roster, liposuction was also a surgery which was also frequently scheduled.

As noted earlier in the article, safety is of the utmost importance so do take great care in finding the most experienced board certified plastic surgeon to carry out those aesthetic goals.

22Mar, 2016

Americans increase the price tag of plastic surgery

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Americans increase the price tag of plastic surgery

Over the years, plastic surgery has been fueled by several factors, but the leading demand stems from individuals who want to look as good as they feel. With that being said, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) recently released some data indicating the amount of money that Americans spent on plastic surgery procedures in 2015 reached an unparalleled all-inclusive price tag: $13 million.

Since ASAPS released this information, a handful of articles have followed highlighting different portions of the study. The data was incredibly concise, revealing the top-tier body and facial rejuvenation procedures that both men and women seek; however, women comprised 90 percent of the procedures underwent in 2015.

In 2015, a total of female Americans had 11.5 million plastic surgery procedures. And men tallied 1.5 million procedures.

Plastic surgery has become an important part of American culture, not to mention around the globe. But here in the states, many have suspected that Corporate America has fueled the desire to seek facial rejuvenation. For many individuals who have worked so hard to achieve their career status, a number of them want to retain their position and not retire. A group in this category view plastic surgery as an asset toward their extended career investment.

In the Washington Times, Jennifer Harper wrote a follow-up piece to the ASAPS data. In her article was a statement by president of ASAPS, Dr. James C. Grotting.

“I personally believe the motivating factors for that are varied, but remaining competitive in the workforce is certainly a common factor. Youth is a commodity, and people are investing in themselves to maintain a younger, healthier appearance,” Dr. Grotting said.

While different age ranges were assessed, 40 percent of patients between the ages of 30 to 50 took part in cosmetic procedures. For women, the top procedure in 2015 was liposuction. Following close behind was breast augmentation, tummy tuck, breast lift and eyelid surgery.

The procedures men sought differed; however, their number one procedure was also liposuction. Next was nose reshaping surgery, eyelid surgery, male breast reduction and facelift.

Although not in the top five for women, buttock augmentation and buttock lifts increased quite quickly in numbers, as well. And the demand is increasing.

Harper wrote, “The surgeons note that fat transfer to the face – a new category – ‘instantly’ landed in the top-10 list, as did nonsurgical skin tightening, a procedure particularly popular among men.”

Fat transfer in the face can be considered by many as being done in lieu of fillers. As one ages, they begin to lose volume in their face, particularly around the nasolabial folds and cheek area. While fillers can last up to a year or more, some patients are welcoming a fat transfer. Fat is extracted from a person’s body and then utilized to add youthful fullness to facial features.

In the non-operative sector, Botox led the way at 4.2 million procedures last year. Fillers trailed close behind as did other minimally invasive procedures such as chemical peels.

Be it operative or non-operative procedures, plastic surgery is filling an aesthetic niche for people of all ages.

7Mar, 2016

ASPS Unveils Data

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ASPS Unveils Data

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is an authority when it comes to collecting information from its elite circle of plastic surgeons so it can generate statistical data. Every year both medical professionals and laypeople are quite interested in the results for their own personal reasons.

For plastic surgeons, they can gauge trends as well as the changes in their own practice. And for non-medical individuals, they have the opportunity to see what is deemed “popular and trendy” in the world of plastic surgery.

According to the press release issued by ASPS, procedures have switched gears in relation to cosmetic procedures since the start of the millennium. And these procedures fall into the categories of operative and other treatments described as minimally-invasive.

The survey revealed a robust total of 15.9 million procedures in both categories. From the data collected in 2015, there was a 2 percent procedure spike in the United States.

In the press release, ASPS president David H. Song, MD, MBA, FACS provided his viewpoint.

“While more traditional facial procedures and breast augmentations are still among the most popular, we’re seeing much more diversity in the areas of the body patients are choosing to address,” he said. Dr. Song added, “Patients have more options than ever, and working closely with their surgeon, they’re able to focus on specific target areas of the body to achieve the look they desire.”

While the press release was indeed filled with statistics, on the other hand, it provided an educational outlet. Interestingly the organization pointed out how in the past “plastic surgery” used to be tantamount facelift procedures. Yes, while facial rejuvenation is still a sought after procedure among certain demographics, other aesthetic procedures have made their own significant mark included the following:

  • Brachioplasty (arm lift)
  • Mastopexy (breast lift)
  • Gluteal Augmentation (buttock lift)
  • Lower Body Lift

According to ASPS, they compared patient stats from 2000. The numbers of arm lifts increased 4,959 percent with 17,099 procedures performed in 2015. Breast lifts increased 89 percent with 99,614 procedures performed in 2015, buttock lifts increased 252 percent with 4,767 procedures performed in 2015, and lower body lifts increased 3,973 percent with 8,431 procedures performed in 2015.

In 2015, the top surgical procedures in the lead were breast augmentation, liposuction, rhinoplasty, eyelid surgery and tummy tucks.

In the minimally-invasive category, it’s not surprising to discover that Botox was at the top of the list with 6.7 million treatments performed in 2015. The other procedures that followed were fillers, chemical peels, laser hair removal, and microdermabrasion.

Dr. Song made another critical statement regarding minimally-invasive procedures.

“The number of available providers, lower costs and the less-invasive nature of these procedures obviously appeal to a much broader range of patients,” said Dr. Song. “However, we urge anyone who is considering a minimally-invasive procedure to consult with a board-certified, ASPS-member surgeon.”

While these procedures are not deemed surgical, they are still considered medical procedures and should be carried out in a medical setting.

Like all ASPS members, Dr. Song encouraged patients to seek only the most “qualified and highly trained” medical professionals for these procedures. And of course, this holds true for all plastic surgeries.

As many begin to digest the newest data from ASPS, it will be interesting to see what 2016 brings.

27Feb, 2016

New Consulting Suite Increases Service

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New Consulting Suite Increases Service

The Clifton Room offers patient care in a warm setting.

Recently Dr. D. Glynn Bolitho opened his new consulting suite adjacent to his operating suite. The new addition truly exceeds the expectations of his patients in an effort to ensure that each individual receives genuine care and comfort. This has always been the cornerstone of this compassionate practice.

Tucked away in the new consulting suite is the Clifton Room. The finest of patient care begins here in a warm setting, punctuated with a memorable ambience. The room exudes comfort allowing a patient the time they need to chat with their patient concierge, Karen Martindale, and ultimately their plastic surgeon, Dr. Bolitho.

Before visiting with this dynamic duo, patients can enjoy the privacy of this sitting room while being afforded the opportunity to view the “before and after” photo gallery on a flat screen television.

In many respects, the Clifton Room satisfies the unexpressed personalized desires of their patients, and the move into a larger suite made the Clifton Room possible.

The visionary behind the Clifton Room was Karen Martindale.

“Having been in the field of plastic surgery for the past 30 years, it was my dream to do something special like this for our patients,” she said. “While working at different practices over the decades, I have met with thousands of patients. Firsthand, I noticed the anticipation one feels when they are about to meet with a plastic surgeon.”

Martindale added how disrobing for a potential body contouring procedure may sometimes elevate this anticipation. And at many plastic surgery centers, patients are automatically escorted into an examining room which can be stressful.

“We wanted to take that anxious feeling away and instead create an atmosphere where the patient has the opportunity to get to know us before going into the examining room. We wanted to create a living room environment where one could sit down, relax, and be greeted in a proper fashion,” Martindale said.

And in this setting, one can unveil their aesthetic desires in the most comfortable way possible.

In many respects, the Clifton Room allows patients the ample time they need to spend with Dr. Bolitho and his medical team. Even with a demanding practice, Dr. Bolitho welcomed this new opportunity making certain his patients were indeed receiving the attention they deserved.

“Dr. Bolitho is not the type of doctor that only spends 15 minutes with a new patient,” Martindale said. “Dr. Bolitho’s different in that he really likes to visit with his patients. It’s something that he enjoys.”

Martindale also shared that since the Clifton Room was created, the patient flow at the practice is notably smoother. Following their visit, Martindale then escorts them to the consultation exam room.

However, the most wonderful part of the Clifton Room has been the client feedback. Many patients agree that they have never experienced a room such as this before in a doctor’s office.

“I’ve been personally told by patients how quickly they are put at ease and don’t feel as anxious as they once thought they would be,” she said.

And that was the mission all along: enhanced patient care, memorable comfort, and a polished ambience.

27Jan, 2016

Comparing U.S. Cosmetic Surgery to Great Britain

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Comparing U.S. Cosmetic Surgery to Great Britain

It’s always incredibly interesting to see how cosmetic surgery trends in the United States compare to other parts of the world. Recently, the Telegraph in the United Kingdom wrote an intriguing article about cosmetic enhancements.

And quite frankly, the title of the article says it all: “Why are the over 55s turning to cosmetic surgery?”

Reporter, Saffron Alexander, begins the article by reviewing data from The Independent Pensions Advisory Service in Britain, otherwise known as TPAS. According to statistics, residents are enjoying their fifty-something years with purchases such as musical instruments, RVs, and telescopes to view the constellations.

However, another interesting find was cosmetic surgery spending.

Alexander turned to the United States, citing numbers from the American Society for Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). In 2014, the data collected revealed that Americans 55+ accounted for 24 percent of cosmetic procedures while those between the ages of 40 to 54 accounted for 34 percent.

Comparing the above information to The British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS) was informative. It appeared that plastic surgery percentages since 2013 have dropped 9 percent. The new mantra is “tweaked not tucked.”

In the article, the following BAAPS statement was included: “The demand for subtle, understated anti-aging procedures such as eyelid surgery, facelifts, and fat transfer remain largely unchanged, while more ‘conspicuous’ treatments such as tummy tucks and nose jobs are dropping dramatically.”

Alexander interviewed plastic surgeon and member of BAAPS, Naveen Cavale, who shared that this trend is more obvious for those over the age of 55.

“There has been a slight rise in the number of people aged 55 or older who are opting for cosmetic surgery. This could partly be because of the new financial freedoms they’re enjoying, but also the fact cosmetic surgery is no longer a taboo in society,” she said. Cavale continued, “It’s also much more affordable and accessible for the average person. The procedures we’re seeing most among the over 55s are things that contribute to facial rejuvenation. We’re seeing them opt for non-surgical procedures like fillers or Botox and other procedures such as facelifts or eyelid correction.”

Here in the United States, facial rejuvenation by way of lower limited facelifts, temporal brow lifts, eyelid surgery and cosmetic injections such as Juvederm and Botox are in the lead.

Most plastic surgeons will agree with Cavale that those who choose facial rejuvenation procedures are in a different demographic as compared to patients in their twenties and thirties.

The most telling information in this published article is that those over 55 who seek a cosmetic surgery procedure do so not to alter their facial features to turn back the clock decades, but rather the yearning to look “less tired” and refreshed is key.

While Cavale succinctly conveyed that patients want to “look better, not younger,” many would agree with this while also adding that any facial rejuvenation being performed affords natural looking results for the most optimal patient satisfaction.

 

23Dec, 2015

Holidays: Cosmetic Procedure Time

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Holidays: Cosmetic Procedure Time
When one thinks of the holiday season, they often conjure up images in their mind of shopping, decorating their home, office parties, and family gatherings. The holidays are a precursor to celebrating the New Year.

While these festivities move full steam ahead, a recent press release floating around cyberspace indicated that the month of December is also one where there is a marked increase in plastic surgery procedures.

Reporter, Rachel Gross from Slate, indicated to her readers that when she first saw the press release, she thought it was gag of some sort. But as she read on, she realized it was anything but a joke.

She wrote, “People really do get more plastic surgeries in December. Surgeons consistently report a surge in people coming to them for procedures at this time of year, with treatments and surgeries often increasing by 20 to 30 percent.”

So why is this so?

According to the research consensus on this subject, December affords so many people long stretches of vacation time, particularly toward the end of the month. For an operative facial procedure such as a lower limited facelift, temporal lobe lift, eyelid surgery, or neck lift surgery, there is some bruising and swelling which can last up to two weeks. Following this downtime, people can return to work with limited swelling and any residual bruising can easily be camouflaged with a touch of makeup.

And operative facial rejuvenation procedures are actually the most sought after during the month of December. During the holidays, avoiding co-workers and others during the recovery stretch can be done far easier than the rest of the year.

And for those interested in body contouring procedures such as a breast augmentation, a patient can be back to the workplace or even be part of the holiday festivities a week or so after her procedure.

And speaking of the holidays, gift buyers such as significant others are purchasing a “treatment gift certificate” for whatever procedure their recipient wants.

While operative procedures were mentioned in the research and media, it’s also important to point out the large role cosmetic injections have made in the world of plastic surgery. Many have opted to have either fillers or Botox done in the early part of the month to have them looking their best during the holidays.

Cosmetic injections require no downtime. Minimal redness and bruising may be apparent for some a couple days following the procedure. A skilled hand such as a board certified plastic surgeon or one of their highly skilled injectable nurses adeptly deliver fillers and Botox for optimal results and minimal side-effects such as bruising.

While one group has benefited from these liquid facelifts, others have chosen a series of chemical peels before the holidays so their facial canvas is smooth and luminous. Generally, it’s recommended to have a chemical peel about two weeks before an event.

The holidays are a time for celebration, but it also seems it is the time for someone to celebrate themselves through their own gift of aesthetics.

29Oct, 2015

Study Reveals Plastic Surgery Boost in Self-Esteem with Chinese Women

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Recent research noted in the JAMA Network Journals and then published in Science Daily highlighted a study regarding plastic surgery among younger Chinese women. Cosmetic surgery in China is high in demand. The most common surgeries sought after are rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty.

The study involved 161 plastic surgery patients. Additionally, “355 general population controls” and “268 facial appearance raters” also took part in the study.

The article published in JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery indicated months following their eyelid and/or nose surgery, the study group indicated feelings of elevated self-esteem and confidence. The study also revealed that these levels of confidence were lower prior to their procedures.

The impetus for this study was assessing the psychological profile of these women due to the fact that plastic surgery in China has proliferated.

Leading the study was Jincai Fan, M.D., of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College in Beijing. He and his coauthors assessed the following:

*Reasons for cosmetic surgery

*Expectations and effectiveness of the procedure

*Postoperative psychological conditions

According to Science Daily, “The authors report self-esteem and self-efficacy scores were lower preoperatively in young women compared with women in the general population who had not visited a plastic surgeon, but those scores increased to nearly normal levels six months after surgery.”

The study was done via a questionnaire both before surgery and then six months following the procedure. Photos of the women were taken for the purpose of the facial appearance raters. Interestingly, the facial appearance raters did not note any distinct differences between those who underwent plastic surgery from those that didn’t who were in the general population segment of the study.

The authors of the study stated, “Self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the negative effects of self-assessment on the decision of young women to undergo facial cosmetic surgery. The impairment of self-esteem and self-efficacy may indicate the need for preoperative psychological intervention.”

In light of the plastic surgery surge in China, this study was quite interesting.